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First steps using the ODM

The best way to understand the Doctrine MongoDB ODM is to see it in action. In this section, you'll walk through each step needed to start persisting documents to and from MongoDB.

An Introductory Example: A Product

Creating a Document Class

Suppose you're building an application where products need to be displayed. Without even thinking about Doctrine or MongoDB, you already know that you need a Product object to represent those products. Create this class inside the Document subdirectory of your project's source code:

1// src/Document/Product.php namespace App\Document; class Product { protected $name; protected $price; }
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The class - often called a document, meaning a basic class that holds data - helps fulfill the business requirement of needing products in your application. This class can't be persisted to Doctrine MongoDB yet - currently it's only a plain PHP class.

Add Mapping Information

Doctrine allows you to work with MongoDB in a much more interesting way than just fetching data back and forth as an array. Instead, Doctrine allows you to persist entire objects to MongoDB and fetch entire objects out of MongoDB. This works by mapping a PHP class and its properties to entries of a MongoDB collection.

For Doctrine to be able to do this, you have to create metadata, or configuration that tells Doctrine exactly how the Product class and its properties should be mapped to MongoDB. This metadata can be specified in a number of different formats including XML or directly inside the Product class via annotations:

  • XML
    1<!-- src/Resources/config/doctrine/Product.mongodb.xml --> <doctrine-mongo-mapping xmlns="http://doctrine-project.org/schemas/odm/doctrine-mongo-mapping" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://doctrine-project.org/schemas/odm/doctrine-mongo-mapping https://doctrine-project.org/schemas/odm/doctrine-mongo-mapping.xsd"> <document name="App\Document\Product"> <id /> <field fieldName="name" type="string" /> <field fieldName="price" type="float" /> </document> </doctrine-mongo-mapping>
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  • PHP
    1// src/Document/Product.php namespace App\Document; use Doctrine\ODM\MongoDB\Mapping\Annotations as MongoDB; /** * @MongoDB\Document */ class Product { /** * @MongoDB\Id */ protected $id; /** * @MongoDB\Field(type="string") */ protected $name; /** * @MongoDB\Field(type="float") */ protected $price; }
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You can also check out Doctrine's Basic Mapping Documentation for all details about mapping information. If you use annotations, you'll need to prepend all annotations with MongoDB\ (e.g. MongoDB\String), which is not shown in Doctrine's documentation. You'll also need to include the use Doctrine\ODM\MongoDB\Mapping\Annotations as MongoDB; statement, which imports the MongoDB annotations prefix.

Persisting Objects to MongoDB

Now that you have a mapped Product document complete with getter and setter methods, you're ready to persist data to MongoDB. Let's try it from inside a controller. Create new Controller class inside source directory of your project:

1// src/App/Controller/ProductController.php use App\Document\Product; use Doctrine\ODM\MongoDB\DocumentManager; use Symfony\Component\HttpFoundation\Response; // ... public function createAction(DocumentManager $dm) { $product = new Product(); $product->setName('A Foo Bar'); $product->setPrice('19.99'); $dm->persist($product); $dm->flush(); return new Response('Created product id ' . $product->getId()); }
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If you're following along with this example, you'll need to create a route that points to this action to see it in work.

Let's walk through this example:

  • lines 9-11 In this section, you instantiate and work with the $product object like you would with any other, normal PHP object;
  • line 13 The persist() method tells Doctrine to "manage" the $product object. This does not actually cause a query to be made to MongoDB (yet);
  • line 14 When the flush() method is called, Doctrine looks through all of the objects that it's managing to see if they need to be persisted to MongoDB. In this example, the $product object has not been persisted yet, so the document manager makes a query to MongoDB, which adds a new entry.

In fact, since Doctrine is aware of all your managed objects, when you call the flush() method, it calculates an overall changeset and executes the most efficient operation possible.

When creating or updating objects, the workflow is always the same. In the next section, you'll see how Doctrine is smart enough to update entries if they already exist in MongoDB.

Doctrine provides a library that allows you to programmatically load testing data into your project (i.e. fixture data). For more information, see DoctrineFixturesBundle.

Fetching Objects from MongoDB

Fetching an object back out of MongoDB is also possible. For example, suppose that you've configured a route to display a specific Product based on its id value:

1public function showAction(DocumentManager $dm, $id) { $product = $dm->getRepository(Product::class)->find($id); if (! $product) { throw $this->createNotFoundException('No product found for id ' . $id); } // do something, like pass the $product object into a template }
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When you query for a particular type of object, you always use what's known as its repository. You can think of a repository as a PHP class whose only job is to help you fetch objects of a certain class. You can access the repository object for a document class via:

1$repository = $dm->getRepository(Product::class);

Once you have your repository, you have access to all sorts of helpful methods:

1// query by the identifier (usually "id") $product = $repository->find($id); // find *all* products $products = $repository->findAll(); // find a group of products based on an arbitrary column value $products = $repository->findBy(['price' => 19.99]);
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You can also issue complex queries, you can learn more about them in the Querying for Objects section.

You can also take advantage of the useful findBy() and findOneBy() methods to easily fetch objects based on multiple conditions:

1// query for one product matching by name and price $product = $repository->findOneBy(['name' => 'foo', 'price' => 19.99]); // query for all products matching the name, ordered by price $product = $repository->findBy( ['name' => 'foo'], ['price' => 'ASC'] );
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Updating an Object

Once you've fetched an object from Doctrine, let's try to update it. Suppose you have a route that maps a product id to an update action in a controller:

1public function updateAction(DocumentManager $dm, $id) { $product = $dm->getRepository(Product::class)->find($id); if (! $product) { throw $this->createNotFoundException('No product found for id ' . $id); } $product->setName('New product name!'); $dm->flush(); return $this->redirectToRoute('homepage'); }
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Updating an object involves three steps:

  1. Fetching the object from Doctrine;
  2. Modifying the object;
  3. Calling flush() on the document manager.

Notice that calling $dm->persist($product) isn't necessary. Recall that this method tells Doctrine to manage or watch the $product object. In this case, since you fetched the $product object from Doctrine, it's already managed.

Deleting an Object

Deleting an object is very similar, but requires a call to the remove() method of the document manager:

1$dm->remove($product); $dm->flush();
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The remove() method notifies Doctrine that you'd like to remove the given document from the MongoDB. The actual delete operation however, isn't executed until the flush() method is called.

Querying for Objects

As you saw above, the built-in repository class allows you to query for one or many objects based on any number of different parameters. When this is enough, this is the easiest way to query for documents. You can also create more complex queries.

Using the Query Builder

Doctrine's ODM ships with a query Builder object, which allows you to construct a query for exactly which documents you want to return. If you use an IDE, you can also take advantage of auto-completion as you type the method names. From inside a controller:

1$products = $dm->createQueryBuilder(Product::class) ->field('name')->equals('foo') ->sort('price', 'ASC') ->limit(10) ->getQuery() ->execute();
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In this case, 10 products with a name of foo, ordered from lowest price to highest price are returned.

The QueryBuilder object contains every method necessary to build your query. For more information on Doctrine's Query Builder, consult Doctrine's Query Builder documentation. For a list of the available conditions you can place on the query, see the Conditional Operators documentation specifically.

Custom Repository Classes

In the previous section, you began constructing and using more complex queries from inside a controller. In order to isolate, test and reuse these queries, it's a good idea to create a custom repository class for your document and add methods with your query logic there.

To do this, add the name of the repository class to your mapping definition.

  • PHP
    1// src/Document/Product.php namespace App\Document; use App\Repository\ProductRepository; use Doctrine\ODM\MongoDB\Mapping\Annotations as MongoDB; /** * @MongoDB\Document(repositoryClass=ProductRepository::class) */ class Product { // ... }
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  • XML
    1<!-- src/Resources/config/doctrine/Product.mongodb.xml --> <!-- ... --> <doctrine-mongo-mapping xmlns="http://doctrine-project.org/schemas/odm/doctrine-mongo-mapping" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://doctrine-project.org/schemas/odm/doctrine-mongo-mapping https://doctrine-project.org/schemas/odm/doctrine-mongo-mapping.xsd"> <document name="App\Document\Product" repository-class="App\Repository\ProductRepository"> <!-- ... --> </document> </doctrine-mongo-mapping>
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You have to create the repository in the namespace indicated above. Make sure it extends the default DocumentRepository. Next, add a new method - findAllOrderedByName() - to the new repository class. This method will query for all of the Product documents, ordered alphabetically.

1// src/Repository/ProductRepository.php namespace App\Repository; use Doctrine\ODM\MongoDB\Repository\DocumentRepository; class ProductRepository extends DocumentRepository { public function findAllOrderedByName() { return $this->createQueryBuilder() ->sort('name', 'ASC') ->getQuery() ->execute(); } }
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You can use this new method like the default finder methods of the repository:

1$products = $dm->getRepository(Product::class) ->findAllOrderedByName();
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When using a custom repository class, you still have access to the default finder methods such as find() and findAll().

Service Repositories

In the previous section, you learnt how to create custom repository classes and how to get them using DocumentManager. Another way of obtaining a repository instance is to use the repository as a service and inject it as a dependency into other services.

1// src/App/Repository/ProductRepository.php namespace App\Repository; use App\Document\Product; use Doctrine\Bundle\MongoDBBundle\ManagerRegistry; use Doctrine\Bundle\MongoDBBundle\Repository\ServiceDocumentRepository; /** * Remember to map this repository in the corresponding document's repositoryClass. * For more information on this see the previous chapter. */ class ProductRepository extends ServiceDocumentRepository { public function __construct(ManagerRegistry $registry) { parent::__construct($registry, Product::class); } }
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The ServiceDocumentRepository class your custom repository is extending allows you to leverage Symfony's autowiring and autoconfiguration. To register all of your repositories as services you can use the following service configuration:

  • YAML
    1# config/services.yaml services: _defaults: autowire: true autoconfigure: true App\Repository\: resource: '../src/Repository/*'
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  • XML
    1<!-- config/services.xml --> <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8" ?> <container xmlns="http://symfony.com/schema/dic/services" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://symfony.com/schema/dic/services https://symfony.com/schema/dic/services/services-1.0.xsd"> <services> <defaults autowire="true" autoconfigure="true" /> <prototype namespace="App\Repository\" resource="../src/Repository/*" /> </services> </container>
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