Doctrine2 Behavioral Extensions

These behavioral extensions will give you another view on Doctrine2 capabilities handling behaviors through the EventListeners. These extensions operate like some of the most commonly used behaviors, leaving the domain objects as clean as possible. Annotations makes it easy to understand an intended behavior of properties on your Entities.

Hi, my name is Gediminas Morkevicius, I have 4 year experience in C++ and PHP 5 and I’m very keen on new technologies and Doctrine2 is one of them. Development is not only a job for me, but it is my lifestyle and I’m pleased to give some love back to Doctrine2.

I would like to thank Doctrine2 and Symfony2 teams for these wonderful projects. They have great potential.

**NOTE** This blog entry relates to Doctrine2 Beta4 ORM version and could possibly be outdated depending on what the current version of Doctrine2 is at the time of you reading this post. Then integrating these extensions on your project it is recommended to use latest Doctrine2 library packages, because where are most recent updates used on extensions for metadata caching and annotations.

Content:

  • Introduction on behavioral extensions
  • Setup and autoloading
  • Translatable extension
  • Tree extension
  • Sluggable extension
  • Timestampable extension
  • All nested together

First of all, this post intends to give an example on how “behaviors” can be implemented through the Doctrine2 EventListeners. All these behavioral extensions can be nested and support flush operation which can include lots of update, insert and remove actions. This is the most common issue when behavior development process is started.

Furthermore, all extensions are mapped by annotations consequently leaving domain objects clean from interfaces and their methods. Plus, the performance speed is even greater if cache driver is used, because metadata for single Entity is mapped and validated only once.

Before we begin exploring the extensions, I`m glad to mention that these extensions are already available on Symfony2 Bundle ported by Christophe Coevoet.

## Setting up the autoloader and listeners

First of all, download this library from public github repository and setup the autoloading for extensions:

<?php
$classLoader = new \Doctrine\Common\ClassLoader('Gedmo', "/path/to/library/DoctrineExtensions/lib");
$classLoader->register();

Translatable behavior will need additional annotation driver for Translation Entity metadata. The example below illustrates the chain driver implementation:

<?php
$chainDriverImpl = new \Doctrine\ORM\Mapping\Driver\DriverChain();
$yourDefaultDriverImpl = new \Doctrine\ORM\Mapping\Driver\YamlDriver('/yml/mapping/files'); // only an example
$translatableDriverImpl = $doctrineOrmConfig->newDefaultAnnotationDriver(
    '/path/to/library/DoctrineExtensions/lib/Gedmo/Translatable/Entity'
);
$chainDriverImpl->addDriver($yourDefaultDriverImpl, 'Entity');
$chainDriverImpl->addDriver($translatableDriverImpl, 'Gedmo\Translatable');
$doctrineOrmConfig->setMetadataDriverImpl($chainDriverImpl);

Attaching the Event Listeners on the event manager

<?php
$evm = new \Doctrine\Common\EventManager();
// timestampable
$evm->addEventSubscriber(new \Gedmo\Timestampable\TimestampableListener());
// sluggable
$evm->addEventSubscriber(new \Gedmo\Sluggable\SluggableListener());
// tree
$evm->addEventSubscriber(new \Gedmo\Tree\TreeListener());
// translatable
$translationListener = new \Gedmo\Translatable\TranslationListener();
$translationListener->setTranslatableLocale('en_us');
// in real world app the locale should be loaded from session, example:
// Session::getInstance()->read('locale');
$evm->addEventSubscriber($translationListener);
// now this event manager should be passed to entity manager constructor

**NOTE** It is recommended to attach TranslationListener as the
last whereas sluggable extension must create a slug before
translating it.

## Translatable

Translatable behavior offers a very handy solution for translating specific record fields into different languages. Furthermore, it loads the translations automatically for the currently used locale. Locale can be set by TranslationListener during it’s initialization or later. It also leaves the possibility to force a specific locale directly on the Entity itself.

Feature list:

  • Translates all records automatically when object hydration is used
  • Supports a separate translation table for each Entity
  • There can be a default locale specified, which would force entity to leave its original translation in default locale.

Translatable annotations:

  • @gedmo:Translatable indicates that the column is translatable
  • @gedmo:TranslationEntity(class=”my”) this class annotation tells to use specified Entity to store translations
  • @gedmo:Locale or @gedmo:Language indicates that the column must not be mapped and that it may be used to override TranslationListener`s locale

Translatable Entity example:

<?php
namespace Entity;

/**
 * @Entity
 */
class Article
{
    /**
     * @Id
     * @GeneratedValue
     * @Column(type="integer")
     */
    private $id;

    /**
     * @gedmo:Translatable
     * @Column(type="string", length=128)
     */
    private $title;

    /**
     * @gedmo:Translatable
     * @Column(type="text")
     */
    private $content;

    /**
     * @gedmo:Locale
     */
    private $locale;

    public function getId()
    {
        return $this->id;
    }

    public function setTitle($title)
    {
        $this->title = $title;
    }

    public function getTitle()
    {
        return $this->title;
    }

    public function setContent($content)
    {
        $this->content = $content;
    }

    public function getContent()
    {
        return $this->content;
    }

    public function setTranslatableLocale($locale)
    {
        $this->locale = $locale;
    }
}

There is no need for any additional operations while working with Translatable Entities. All processing is done by event listener, just like in good old behaviors. Except that in Doctrine2 the code is simpler and easy to understand and you may inspect it and customize if you see any point in doing that.

Here are standard usage examples, the locale was set to “en_us” on listener:

<?php
$article = new \Entity\Article;
$article->setTitle('my title in en');
$article->setContent('my content in en');
$em->persist($article);
$em->flush();

This inserted an article and populated the translations for it in “en_us” locale. Now lets translate it into another language:

<?php
// first load the article
$article = $em->find('Entity\Article', 1 /*article id*/);
$article->setTitle('my title in de');
$article->setContent('my content in de');
$article->setTranslatableLocale('de_de'); // change locale
$em->persist($article);
$em->flush();

This updated an article and inserted the translations for it in “de_de” locale. The TranslationRepository gives some handy methods on retrieving all translations:

<?php
$em->clear(); // ensure the cache is clean
$article = $em->find('Entity\Article', 1 /*article id*/);
$repository = $em->getRepository('Gedmo\Translatable\Entity\Translation');
$translations = $repository->findTranslations($article);
/* $translations contains:
Array (
    [de_de] => Array
        (
            [title] => my title in de
            [content] => my content in de
        )

    [en_us] => Array
        (
            [title] => my title in en
            [content] => my content in en
        )
)*/
// the locale now is "en_us" and current article::title in db is "my title in de"
echo $article->getTitle();
// prints: "my title in en" because it loads the translation automatically

Using the “default locale”:

In some cases we need the default translation as a fallback if record does not have a translation on globally used locale. In that case TranslationListener uses the current value of Entity. But there is a way to specify a default locale which would force Entity to keep it``s field value on default locale. And if record has already been translated in this locale, the record will not update it``s value, only insert a new translation into translation table. You can specify the default locale on TranslationListener`s initialization:

<?php
$translationListener->setDefaultLocale('en_us');

Using a diferent Translation Entity for translation storage:

In some cases when there are thousands of records we would like to have a single table for translations of this Entity in order to increase the performance on translation loading speed. The example below will show how to specify a diferent Entity for your translations by extending the translation mapped superclass. Thanks to Christophe Coevoet for the idea on translation abstraction.

<?php
namespace Entity\Translation;

use Gedmo\Translatable\Entity\AbstractTranslation;

/**
 * @Table(name="article_translations", indexes={
 *      @index(name="article_translation_idx", columns={"locale", "entity", "foreign_key", "field"})
 * })
 * @Entity(repositoryClass="Gedmo\Translatable\Repository\TranslationRepository")
 */
class ArticleTranslation extends AbstractTranslation
{
    /**
     * All required columns are mapped through inherited superclass
     */
}

This Entity will be used instead of default Translation Entity only if we specify a class annotation @gedmo:TranslationEntity(class=”Entity”). Now lets slightly modify our Article Entity:

<?php
/**
 * @Entity
 * @gedmo:TranslationEntity(class="Entity\Translation\ArticleTranslation")
 */
class Article
{
    // ...
}

Now all translations of Article will be stored and queried from a specific table.

## Tree

Tree behavior is not a Nested Set which it was in the first version of Doctrine. This one does not require any TreeManager nor NodeWrapper and it does not support multiple roots on tree because it is meant to be simple and is implemented through the event listener. All standard Tree operations are accessible through TreeNodeRepository which is advisable to be used for Tree structured Entities. This Tree allows all traverse operations to be done on your nodes. When performance or advanced customizations becomes an issue, a more advanced implementation like nested-set by Brandon Turner might be needed.

Tree annotations:

  • @gedmo:TreeLeft identifies the column as storage of Tree left value
  • @gedmo:TreeRight identifies the column as storage of Tree right value
  • @gedmo:TreeParent this will identify this column as a ManyToOne relation of parent node

All these annotations are required for the Tree to be functional. And here is an example of a simple Tree Entity:

<?php
namespace Entity;

/**
 * use repository for handy tree functions
 * @Entity(repositoryClass="Gedmo\Tree\Repository\TreeNodeRepository")
 */
class Category
{
    /**
     * @Column(type="integer")
     * @Id
     * @GeneratedValue
     */
    private $id;

    /**
     * @Column(length=64)
     */
    private $title;

    /**
     * @gedmo:TreeLeft
     * @Column(name="lft", type="integer")
     */
    private $lft;

    /**
     * @gedmo:TreeRight
     * @Column(name="rgt", type="integer")
     */
    private $rgt;

    /**
     * @gedmo:TreeParent
     * @ManyToOne(targetEntity="Category", inversedBy="children")
     */
    private $parent;

    /**
     * @OneToMany(targetEntity="Category", mappedBy="parent")
     * @OrderBy({"lft" = "ASC"})
     */
    private $children;

    public function getId()
    {
        return $this->id;
    }

    public function setTitle($title)
    {
        $this->title = $title;
    }

    public function getTitle()
    {
        return $this->title;
    }

    public function setParent(Category $parent)
    {
        $this->parent = $parent;
    }

    public function getParent()
    {
        return $this->parent;
    }
}

Basic usage example:

<?php
$food = new Entity\Category();
$food->setTitle('Food');

$fruits = new Entity\Category();
$fruits->setTitle('Fruits');
$fruits->setParent($food);

$vegetables = new Entity\Category();
$vegetables->setTitle('Vegetables');
$vegetables->setParent($food);

$carrots = new Entity\Category();
$carrots->setTitle('Carrots');
$carrots->setParent($vegetables);

$em->persist($food);
$em->persist($fruits);
$em->persist($vegetables);
$em->persist($carrots);
$em->flush();

The result after flush will generate the tree of food chain :)

/food (1-8)
    /fruits (2-3)
    /vegetables (4-7)
        /carrots (5-6)

Using TreeNodeRepository functions:

<?php
$repo = $em->getRepository('Entity\Category');

$food = $repo->findOneByTitle('Food');
echo $repo->childCount($food);
// prints: 3
echo $repo->childCount($food, true/*direct*/);
// prints: 2
$children = $repo->children($food);
// $children contains:
// 3 nodes
$children = $repo->children($food, false, 'title');
// will sort the children by title
$carrots = $repo->findOneByTitle('Carrots');
$path = $repo->getPath($carrots);
/* $path contains:
   0 => Food
   1 => Vegetables
   2 => Carrots
*/

// verification and recovery of tree
$repo->verify();
$em->clear(); // ensures cache clean
// can return TRUE if tree is valid, or array of errors found on tree
$repo->recover();
$em->clear(); // ensures cache clean
// if tree has errors it will try to fix all tree nodes

// single node removal
$vegies = $repo->findOneByTitle('Vegitables');
$repo->removeFromTree($vegies);
// it will remove this node from tree and reparent all children

// reordering the tree
$repo->reorder(null/*reorder starting from parent*/, 'title');
$em->clear(); // ensures cache clean
// it will reorder all tree node left-right values by the title

// moving up and down the nodes, by changing their (left, right) values
$carrots = $repo->findOneByTitle('Carrots');
$repo->moveUp($carrots, 1/*by one position*/);
// carrots now should be at the top in it`s level
$repo->moveDown($carrots, true/*to bottom*/);
// carrots now should be at the bottom in it`s level

After using such Tree operations like: reorder, recover, verify it is recommended to clear the EntityManager cache since it may have cached nodes with old left and right values. This would be an issue if you plan on using nodes during the same request after mentioned operations. And if you need some custom functions on your Node repository - simply extend the TreeNodeRepository.

## Sluggable

Sluggable behavior will build the slug from annotated fields on a chosen slug field which should store the generated slug. Slugs can be unique and styled. Currently this extension does not support unique constraint on slug field in cases when there are many inserts on a single flush operation, because it cannot issue a query to ensure uniqueness. Use a simple index instead.

Sluggable annotations:

  • @gedmo:Sluggable all columns identified by this annotation will be included in a slug
  • @gedmo:Slug this column will be used to store the generated slug
<?php
namespace Entity;

/**
 * @Entity
 */
class Article
{
    /** @Id @GeneratedValue @Column(type="integer") */
    private $id;

    /**
     * @gedmo:Sluggable
     * @Column(name="title", type="string", length=64)
     */
    private $title;

    /**
     * @gedmo:Sluggable
     * @Column(name="code", type="string", length=16)
     */
    private $code;

    /**
     * @gedmo:Slug
     * @Column(name="slug", type="string", length=128, unique=true)
     */
    private $slug;

    public function getId()
    {
        return $this->id;
    }

    public function setTitle($title)
    {
        $this->title = $title;
    }

    public function getTitle()
    {
        return $this->title;
    }

    public function setCode($code)
    {
        $this->code = $code;
    }

    public function getCode()
    {
        return $this->code;
    }

    public function getSlug()
    {
        return $this->slug;
    }
}

Basic usage example:

<?php
$article = new Entity\Article();
$article->setTitle('the title');
$article->setCode('my code');
$em->persist($article);
$em->flush();

echo $article->getSlug();
// prints: the-title-my-code

### Some other configuration options:

  • updatable (optional, default=true) - true to update the slug on sluggable field changes, false - otherwise
  • unique (optional, default=true) - true if slug should be unique and if identical it will be prefixed, false - otherwise
  • separator (optional, default=”-”) - separator which will separate words in slug
  • style (optional, default=”default”) - “default” all letters will be lowercase, “camel” - first letter will be uppercase
<?php
// diferent slug configuration example
class Article
{
    // ...
    /**
     * @gedmo:Slug(style="camel", separator="_", updatable=false, unique=false)
     * @Column(name="slug", type="string", length=128, unique=true)
     */
    private $slug;
    // ...
}

// result would be: The_Title_My_Code

## Timestampable

Timestampable behavior will automate the update of date fields on your Entities. It works through annotations and can update fields on creation, update or even on specific internal or related Entity property change.

Timestampable annotations:

  • @gedmo:Timestampable this annotation specifies that this column is timestampable, by default it updates this column on general update. If column is not (date, datetime or time) it will trigger an exception. Bellow are listed available configuration options:

Available configuration options:

  • on - is the main option and can be: create, update or change. This option indicates when an update should be triggered
  • field - only valid if on=”change” is specified, tracks property for changes
  • value - only valid if on=”change” is specified, if tracked field has the specified value when it triggers an update
<?php
namespace Entity;

/**
 * @Entity
 */
class Article
{
    /** @Id @GeneratedValue @Column(type="integer") */
    private $id;

    /**
     * @Column(type="string", length=128)
     */
    private $title;

    /**
     * @var datetime $created
     *
     * @gedmo:Timestampable(on="create")
     * @Column(type="date")
     */
    private $created;

    /**
     * @var datetime $updated
     *
     * @Column(type="datetime")
     * @gedmo:Timestampable(on="update")
     */
    private $updated;

    public function getId()
    {
        return $this->id;
    }

    public function setTitle($title)
    {
        $this->title = $title;
    }

    public function getTitle()
    {
        return $this->title;
    }

    public function getCreated()
    {
        return $this->created;
    }

    public function getUpdated()
    {
        return $this->updated;
    }
}

## All nested together

<?php
namespace Entity;

/**
 * @Entity(repositoryClass="Gedmo\Tree\Repository\TreeNodeRepository")
 */
class Category
{
    /**
     * @Column(name="id", type="integer")
     * @Id
     * @GeneratedValue
     */
    private $id;

    /**
     * @gedmo:Translatable
     * @gedmo:Sluggable
     * @Column(length=64)
     */
    private $title;

    /**
     * @gedmo:TreeLeft
     * @Column(type="integer")
     */
    private $lft;

    /**
     * @gedmo:TreeRight
     * @Column(type="integer")
     */
    private $rgt;

    /**
     * @gedmo:TreeParent
     * @ManyToOne(targetEntity="Category", inversedBy="children")
     */
    private $parent;

    /**
     * @OneToMany(targetEntity="Category", mappedBy="parent")
     * @OrderBy({"lft" = "ASC"})
     */
    private $children;

    /**
     * @gedmo:Translatable
     * @gedmo:Slug(style="camel", separator="_")
     * @Column(length=128)
     */
    private $slug;

    /**
     * @gedmo:Timestampable(on="create")
     * @Column(type="date")
     */
    private $created;

    /**
     * @gedmo:Timestampable(on="update")
     * @Column(type="datetime")
     */
    private $updated;

    public function getId()
    {
        return $this->id;
    }

    public function setTitle($title)
    {
        $this->title = $title;
    }

    public function getTitle()
    {
        return $this->title;
    }

    public function setParent(Category $parent)
    {
        $this->parent = $parent;
    }

    public function getParent()
    {
        return $this->parent;
    }

    public function getCreated()
    {
        return $this->created;
    }

    public function getUpdated()
    {
        return $this->updated;
    }

    public function getSlug()
    {
        return $this->slug;
    }
}

After running some inserts you will get the expected result. Don`t be afraid to use concurrent flush with many inserts and updates or even remove operations, everything is meant to work fine.

Some of you may think that using no interface takes longer to check Entities on events. In fact, it takes only a single ‘if’ statement and a cache check on first request. This way the process is much cleaner.

Maybe these extensions will help some of you realize how clean domain objects can be and how well the model represents itself. It’s much more convenient than Active Record - browsing several extended classes, going through magic methods of those classes. While here you see everything in one grasp.

There will be updates on my blog page and new articles which may interest some of you. You can give some love back by forking a repository and creating an ODM Document support on extensions or suggesting me an idea of improvements or maybe an issue which you have detected.

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