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Doctrine provides cache drivers in the
doctrine/cache package for some
of the most popular caching implementations such as APCu, Memcache
and Xcache. We also provide an
ArrayCache driver which stores
the data in a PHP array. Obviously, when using
cache does not persist between requests, but this is useful for
testing in a development environment.
The cache drivers follow a simple interface that is defined in
Doctrine\Common\Cache\Cache. All the cache drivers extend a
Doctrine\Common\Cache\CacheProvider which implements
The interface defines the following public methods for you to implement:
- fetch($id) - Fetches an entry from the cache
- contains($id) - Test if an entry exists in the cache
- save($id, $data, $lifeTime = false) - Puts data into the cache for x seconds. 0 = infinite time
- delete($id) - Deletes a cache entry
Each driver extends the
CacheProvider class which defines a few
abstract protected methods that each of the drivers must
- doSave($id, $data, $lifeTime = false)
The public methods
contains() etc. use the
above protected methods which are implemented by the drivers. The
code is organized this way so that the protected methods in the
drivers do the raw interaction with the cache implementation and
CacheProvider can build custom functionality on top of
This documentation does not cover every single cache driver included with Doctrine. For an up-to-date-list, see the cache directory on GitHub.
The preferred cache driver for metadata and query caches is
This driver serializes cache items and writes them to a file. This allows for
opcode caching to be used and provides high performance in most scenarios.
In order to use the
PhpFileCache driver it must be able to write to
Below is an example of how to use the
PhpFileCache driver by itself.
The PhpFileCache is not distributed across multiple machines if you are running your application in a distributed setup. This is ok for the metadata and query cache but is not a good approach for the result cache.
In order to use the Memcache cache driver you must have it compiled and enabled in your php.ini. You can read about Memcache on the PHP website. It will give you a little background information about what it is and how you can use it as well as how to install it.
Below is a simple example of how you could use the Memcache cache driver by itself.
Memcached is a more recent and complete alternative extension to Memcache.
In order to use the Memcached cache driver you must have it compiled and enabled in your php.ini. You can read about Memcached on the PHP website. It will give you a little background information about what it is and how you can use it as well as how to install it.
Below is a simple example of how you could use the Memcached cache driver by itself.
In order to use the Redis cache driver you must have it compiled and enabled in your php.ini. You can read about what Redis is from here. Also check A PHP extension for Redis for how you can use and install the Redis PHP extension.
Below is a simple example of how you could use the Redis cache driver by itself.
Using Cache Drivers
In this section we'll describe how you can fully utilize the API of
the cache drivers to save data to a cache, check if some cached data
exists, fetch the cached data and delete the cached data. We'll use the
ArrayCache implementation as our example here.
Saving some data to the cache driver is as simple as using the
save() method accepts three arguments which are described
$id- The cache id
$data- The cache entry/data.
$lifeTime- The lifetime. If != false, sets a specific lifetime for this cache entry (null => infinite lifeTime).
You can save any type of data whether it be a string, array, object, etc.
Checking whether cached data exists is very simple: just use the
contains() method. It accepts a single argument which is the ID
of the cache entry.
Now if you want to retrieve some cache entry you can use the
fetch() method. It also accepts a single argument just like
contains() which is again the ID of the cache entry.
As you might guess, deleting is just as easy as saving, checking
and fetching. You can delete by an individual ID, or you can
delete all entries.
By Cache ID
If you heavily use caching in your application and use it in
multiple parts of your application, or use it in different
applications on the same server you may have issues with cache
naming collisions. This can be worked around by using namespaces.
You can set the namespace a cache driver should use by using the
Integrating with the ORM
The Doctrine ORM package is tightly integrated with the cache drivers to allow you to improve the performance of various aspects of Doctrine by simply making some additional configurations and method calls.
It is highly recommended that in a production environment you cache the transformation of a DQL query to its SQL counterpart. It doesn't make sense to do this parsing multiple times as it doesn't change unless you alter the DQL query.
This can be done by configuring the query cache implementation to use on your ORM configuration.
The result cache can be used to cache the results of your queries so that we don't have to query the database or hydrate the data again after the first time. You just need to configure the result cache implementation.
Now when you're executing DQL queries you can configure them to use the result cache.
You can also configure an individual query to use a different result cache driver.
Setting the result cache driver on the query will
automatically enable the result cache for the query. If you want to
disable it use
If you want to set the time the cache has to live you can use the
The ID used to store the result set cache is a hash which is
automatically generated for you if you don't set a custom ID
yourself with the
You can also set the lifetime and cache ID by passing the values as
the first and second argument to
Your class metadata can be parsed from a few different sources like YAML, XML, Annotations, etc. Instead of parsing this information on each request we should cache it using one of the cache drivers.
Just like the query and result cache we need to configure it first.
Now the metadata information will only be parsed once and stored in the cache driver.
Clearing the Cache
We've already shown you how you can use the API of the cache drivers to manually delete cache entries. For your convenience we offer command line tasks to help you with clearing the query, result and metadata cache.
From the Doctrine command line you can run the following commands:
To clear the query cache use the
1 $ ./doctrine orm:clear-cache:query
To clear the metadata cache use the
1 $ ./doctrine orm:clear-cache:metadata
To clear the result cache use the
1 $ ./doctrine orm:clear-cache:result
All these tasks accept a
--flush option to flush the entire
contents of the cache instead of invalidating the entries.
None of these tasks will work with APC, APCu, or XCache drivers because the memory that the cache is stored in is only accessible to the webserver.
A common pattern is to use a static cache to store data that is requested many times in a single PHP request. Even though this data may be stored in a fast memory cache, often that cache is over a network link leading to sizable network traffic.
The ChainCache class allows multiple caches to be registered at once. For example, a per-request ArrayCache can be used first, followed by a (relatively) slower MemcacheCache if the ArrayCache misses. ChainCache automatically handles pushing data up to faster caches in the chain and clearing data in the entire stack when it is deleted.
A ChainCache takes a simple array of CacheProviders in the order that they should be used.
ChainCache itself extends the CacheProvider interface, so it is possible to create chains of chains. While this may seem like an easy way to build a simple high-availability cache, ChainCache does not implement any exception handling so using it as a high-availability mechanism is not recommended.
Something to be careful of when using the cache drivers is cache slams. Imagine you have a heavily trafficked website with some code that checks for the existence of a cache record and if it does not exist it generates the information and saves it to the cache. Now, if 100 requests were issued all at the same time and each one sees the cache does not exist and they all try to insert the same cache entry it could lock up APC, Xcache, etc. and cause problems. Ways exist to work around this, like pre-populating your cache and not letting your users' requests populate the cache.
You can read more about cache slams in this blog post.